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photosynthetic efficiency and crop productivity

Posted on 10. Jan, 2021 by in Random Stuff

This review attempts to develop a mechanistic understanding of the effects of N on crop biomass accumulation by elucidating quantitative relationships among leaf N content, CO 2 assimilation rate, and crop radiation use efficiency. Because C 2 plants suffer less net carbon loss from photorespiration, engineering C 2 photosynthesis into C 3 crops could therefore have a large impact on crop production. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is paving the way to increase crop production efficiency with electric lamps. In this work, the TLA concept was applied in high-density tobacco canopies. Introduction Plants greatly … Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily, its staff, its contributors, or its partners. A factory's productivity decreases when supplies, transportation channels, and reliable machinery are limited. This research program, known as Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency or RIPE, is being led by the University of Illinois. Keywords: Photosynthesis efficiency, abiotic stress, biotic stress, climate change, Multiple Stress Conditions, Crop productivity Important Note : All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they … Demand for food and fuel is steadily increasing, while gains in the yield of many major food crops through traditional breeding and natural variation have leveled. European Scientist: Scientists increase crop production by 47%. Light attenuation is an important aspect that influences the overall photosynthetic rate and the accumulation of biomass of plants, particularly cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).Thus light quality and light duration play an important role in the productivity of cotton. Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader: Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks: Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. ScienceDaily. Introduction. Flag leaves could help top off photosynthetic performance in rice. Here, we explore an array of prospective redesigns of plant systems at various scales, all aimed at increasing crop yields through improved photosynthetic efficiency and performance. Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), UC Berkeley, and the University of Illinois targeted three genes involved in a process plants use to protect themselves from damage when they get more light than they can safely use. The highly variable levels of light plants receive, particularly in densely planted crop fields, presents a challenge to the efficient use of solar energy. "This study provides the exciting opportunity to potentially combine three confirmed and independent methods of achieving 20 percent increases in crop productivity," said RIPE Director Stephen Long, Ikenberry Endowed University Chair of Crop Sciences and Plant Biology at the Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology at Illinois. Photosynthesis is the primary determinant of crop yield, and the efficiency by which a crop captures light and converts it into biomass over the growing season is a key determinant of final yield, be that biomass or grain (et al., 2006Long ). Here we examine inefficiencies in photosynthetic energy transduction in crops from light interception to The researchers described their findings in a paper published today in the journal Science. “We discovered 20 years ago that red algae can produce more efficient versions of Rubisco than Photosynthesis in this leaf provides the majority of The flag leaf is the last to emerge, indicating the transition from crop growth to grain production. Niyogi compared NPQ to a pressure relief valve in a steam engine. “NPQ turns on and gets rid of the excess energy safely. Saturday, January 9 2021 The photosynthetic efficiency in most crops is less than 2% and even a small increase in this has potential to improve biomass and yield. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. They discovered that producing more of a protein that controls the rate in which electrons flow during photosynthesis, accelerates the whole process. Photosynthesis is an important biochemical reaction that forms the basis of all food chains. Photosynthetic hacks can boost crop yield, conserve water. This international research project is sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the U.S. Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR), and the U.K. Government's Department for International Development (DFID). To capitalize on these advantages, attempts have been made to engineer the C 4 pathway into C 3 rice (Oryza sativa). These two improvements, when combined, have been shown to increase crop productivity by 52 percent in the greenhouse. (Credit: Lauriebeth Leonelli and Matthew Brooks/UC Berkeley). Plants contain the green pigment chlorophyll and they require light energy from the sun to photosynthesize and to grow. Inside two photosystems, sunlight is captured and turned into chemical energy that can be used for other processes in photosynthesis. In rice plants, the flag leaf is the last to emerge, indicating the transition from crop growth to grain production. Modern Farmer: Scientists may found a way to increase crop yield by a bonkers 20% Smithsonian Magazine: New technique could supercharge crop production Popular Science: Scientists tweak plant genes to enhance photosynthesis and increase crop yields Peoria Public Radio (WCBU 89.9): Genetically Modifying Photosynthesis Can … January 5, 2021 By: Claire Benjamin . The photosynthetic engine can’t work as efficiently.”. Materials provided by Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Its efficiency is considered a key determinant of crop productivity. The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in green plants and algae. We assert that increasing the efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in crop plants will be essential if this grand challenge is to be met. Photosynthetic capacity and efficiency are bottlenecks to raising productivity and there is strong evidence that increasing photosynthesis will increase crop yields provided that other constraints do … Overall, canopy architecture significantly affected canopy photosynthetic efficiency and water-use efficiency, suggesting that optimizing canopy structures can contribute to yield enhancement in crops. Therefore, improving photosynthetic efficiency has been a focus of intensive research. Plant biologists have bumped up crop productivity by increasing the expression of genes that result in more efficient use of light in photosynthesis, a finding that could be used to help address the world’s future food needs. Tobacco leaves showing transient overexpression of genes involved in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), a system that protects plants from light damage. Saturday, January 9 2021 One strategy to improve photosynthetic yields is to replace a crop plant’s rubisco with a faster enzyme along with a carbon-concentrating mechanism. Overall, canopy architecture significantly affected canopy photosynthetic efficiency and water-use efficiency, suggesting that optimizing canopy structures can contribute to yield enhancement in crops. Raising the water-use efficiency of both irrigated and rain-fed crop production is an urgent imperative (Hamdy et al., 2003).Of the world's allocatable water resource, c. 80% is currently consumed by irrigated agriculture.This level of consumption by agriculture is not sustainable into the future. "In our field trials, we discovered that these plants are using less water to make more biomass," said principal investigator Christine Raines, a professor in the School of Life Sciences at Essex where she also serves as the Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Research. Photosynthesis can be described by the simplified chemical reaction 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 + energy → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2. where C 6 H 12 O 6 is glucose (which is subsequently transformed into other sugars, cellulose, lignin, and so forth). Plastocyanin requires copper and cytochrome requires iron to function. Next, the team plans to translate these discoveries from tobacco -- a model crop used in this study as a test-bed for genetic improvements because it is easy to engineer, grow, and test -- to staple food crops such as cassava, cowpea, maize, soybean and rice that are needed to feed our growing population this century. Questions? This, in turn, can be achieved by altering the ratio of the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a and b. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/08/200810113213.htm (accessed January 10, 2021). Note: Content may be edited for style and length. However, photosynthetic efficiency remains standing as a determinant of yield potential with the improvement capacity to double crop productivity (1–3, 5, 6). Photosynthesis is the basis of primary productivity on the planet. Scientists have found how to relieve a bottleneck in the process by which plants transform sunlight into food, which may lead to an increase in crop production. Congratulations to Mary Blackburn on winning the National Extension Association of Family and Consumer Sciences Hal… https://t.co/4XBCXsQvEX, Since its founding in 1915, Forestry Camp has been canceled only twice, during both World Wars. Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE) aims to improve photosynthesis to equip farmers worldwide with higher-yielding crops to ensure everyone has enough food to lead a healthy, productive life. “The molecular processes we’re modifying are fundamental to plants that carry out photosynthesis, so we hope to see a similar increase in yield in other crops.”. Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE) is a translational research project that is genetically engineering plants to photosynthesize more efficiently to increase crop yields. The project's second breakthrough, also published in Science, created a shortcut in how plants deal with a glitch in photosynthesis to boost productivity by 20 to 40 percent. Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. NFs can improve the nutrient use efficiency about threefolds and improve the crop productivity by promoting seed germination, seedling growth, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthetic activity, protein synthesis, antioxidant defense, etc. These two improvements, when combined, have been shown to increase crop productivity by 52 percent in the greenhouse. However, the crops have some ability to adapt and resist against limited irrigation. The RIPE project is an international effort led by the University of Illinois to develop more productive crops by improving photosynthesis -- the natural, sunlight-powered process that all plants use to fix carbon dioxide into sugars that fuel growth, development, and ultimately yield. April 24, 2020. Therefore, improving photosynthetic efficiency has been a focus of intensive research. RIPE aims to increase agricultural production worldwide, particularly to help reduce hunger and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia by sustainably improving the yield of key food crops including soybeans, rice, … The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that food production will need to nearly double by 2050 to meet increasing demand. Some limitations and adverse effects of NFs have also been reported. “My attitude is that it is very important to have these new technologies on the shelf now because it can take 20 years before such inventions can reach farmer’s fields,” said Long. Any new technology licensed from this work will be made freely available to farmers in poor countries in Africa and South Asia. Photosynthesis in this leaf provides the majority of The flag leaf is the last to emerge, indicating the transition from crop growth to grain production. As a potential solution, researchers are applying synthetic biology to improve photosynthesis. In higher plants, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), the fraction of sunlight with wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm is harvested by the photosynthetic pigments of photosystems PSI and PSII. (2020, August 10). 1. "We have identified some steps that are slower, and what we're doing is enabling these plants to build more machines to speed up these slower steps in photosynthesis.". To achieve this, scientists are analyzing thousands of plants to find out what tweaks to the plant's structure or its cellular machinery could increase production. ScienceDaily shares links with sites in the. "Like a factory line, plants are only as fast as their slowest machines," said Patricia Lopez-Calcagno, a postdoctoral researcher at Essex, who led this work for the RIPE project. The C 4 photosynthetic pathway is a CO 2 -concentrating mechanism that generally enables C 4 plants to achieve greater efficiency in their use of light, nitrogen, and water than C 3 plants. “Tobacco was used as the model crop plant in this study because it is easy to work with, but we’re working to make the same modifications in rice and other food crops,” said co-senior author Krishna Niyogi, a professor in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology. Content on this website is for information only. Photosynthetic efficiency and biomass productivity in rice largely decreased at cool temperatures (Nagai and Makino, 2009), and rice yield in northern regions of Japan is limited by low biomass accumulation in cool climates between spring and early summer. Scientists engineered plants with a photosynthesis “shortcut” to increase crop production by up to 40%, according to a research article published in Science journal. 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