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stress in dental materials

Posted on 10. Jan, 2021 by in Random Stuff

In the same column, values followed by the same superscript are not statistically different (ANOVA/Tukey test. Data sources: This report followed the PRISMA Statement. In unidirectional continuous fiber-reinforced composites polymerization shrinkage is severely restricted in the direction of the fiber long-axis, but not transversally . Leprince J.G., Palin W.M., Vanacker J., Sabbagh J., Devaux J., Leloup G.: Physico-mechanical characteristics of commercially available bulk-fill composites. Though mechanically these materials did not stand out amidst particle-only materials , in one of them fibers were responsible for its “packable” viscosity . Boxplot of polymerization stress results, as a function of the tested composite and the height of the specimen. In conclusion, the replacement of 3% of filler particles by short glass fibers resulted in a statistically significant increase in polymerization stress. 26. Goracci C., Cadenaro M., Fontanive L., Giangrosso G., Juloski J., Vichi A., et. A bi-axial flexure test (piston-on-three-balls), a four-point flexure test, and a diametral tensile test were used to measure the failure stress of four brittle dental materials: zinc phosphate cement, body porcelain, opaque porcelain, and visible light-cured resin composite. Since then, several studies have tested the effect of adding continuous glass or carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of acrylic resins and several clinical applications were devised for continuous fiber-reinforced composites, such as periodontal and orthodontic splints and fixed prosthodontics substructures . Ten minutes after the beginning of photoactivation, the specimen was removed from the mold and placed on a testing jig positioned under the crosshead of a universal testing machine (Instron 5565), with an 8-mm span between the supporting rollers and the irradiated surface on the compression side. Polymerization stress was not significantly affected by specimen height. Purpose: A systematic review was conducted to determine whether there were any alternative technique or additional step strategies available to reduce and control polymerization shrinkage stress development in dental resin-based restorative materials. A clinically relevant, but least explored aspect of fiber reinforced composites is their polymerization shrinkage and associated polymerization stress. Flexural modulus was reduced for both fiber levels. Dental Materials, 2016-09-01, Volume 32, Issue 9, Pages 1079-1084, Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. This result was not completely unexpected, as previous studies have shown similar performance between particulate and short fiber-reinforced composites . The rods were attached to the opposite fixtures of a universal testing machine (Instron 5565, Canton, MA, USA) and positioned at pre-set distances of 1.5 mm or 4.0 mm. Dent Mater 2013; 29: pp. al. 18. A single 20-s exposure was used to cure the specimen (Radii-cal, SDI). Discussion To test the null hypotheses that (1) the replacement of particles by short fibers does not affect polymerization stress (PS), flexural modulus (FM) or volumetric shrinkage (VS) of experimental composites and (2) PS is not affected by specimen thickness. 704-709. Koplin C, Jaeger R, Hahn P (2009) A material model for internal stress of dental composites caused by the curing process. Fig. Acknowledgements × J Dent 2014; 42: pp. : Polymerization stress, shrinkage and elastic modulus of current low-shrinkage restorative composites. The principal aim of Dental Materials is to promote rapid communication of scientific information between academia, industry, and the dental practitioner. Data were subjected to normality (Anderson-Darling) and homogeneity of variance (Levene) tests. Karacaer O., Polat T.N., Tezvergil A., Lassila L.V., Vallittu P.K. 3 Fig. Replacing 6% of particles by fibers did not increase PS significantly. This rationale explains the difference in polymerization stress between the experimental control and the composite containing 3% of fibers, i.e. Dent Mater 2007; 23: pp. b Mechanical properties and parameters that are measures of the elastic strain or plastic strain behavior of dental materials include elastic modulus (also called Young’s modulus or modulus of elasticity), dynamic Young’s modulus (determined by the measurement of ultrasonic wave velocity), shear modulus, flexibility, resilience, and Poisson’s ratio. 27. Compressive strength is most useful for comparing materials that are brittle and generally weak in tension. Methods Averages and standard deviations for polymerization stress, flexural modulus, polymerization shrinkage and maximum shrinkage rate of the tested composites All values correspond to data recorded 10 min after the onset of photoactivation (except maximum shrinkage rate). Average curves of composite polymerization stress as a function of time, in both specimen configuration (1.5 mm and 4.0 mm heights). For example, in the two studies mentioned above, specimen thickness in the polymerization stress test was 2 mm and 0.8 mm (respectively, for references and ) and in both cases these dimensions were lower than fiber average. 369-374. Stress is defined as: A. Three specimens (n=3) were made per material and light-cured with an LED unit (1200mW/cm(2)) for 20s. Objectives: To investigate a set of resin-composites and the effect of their composition on polymerization shrinkage strain and strain kinetics, shrinkage stress and the apparent elastic modulus. One possible hypothesis to explain this finding is the relatively high scattering of the stress data obtained with the 4.0-mm high specimens, as can be seen in the boxplot in Fig. 30. A spherical indenter was used to test the materials with nanometer and micro-Newton displacement and force … Shrinkage versus time curves are shown in Fig. Also, a systematic review of studies reporting the flexural properties of unidirectional or woven fiber-reinforced composites found no significant effect of fiber reinforcement on flexural modulus, in comparison to unreinforced controls . Maximum shrinkage rate (in % s −1 ) was calculated as the first derivative of the shrinkage versus time curve, as an indication of polymerization reaction rate. The same seems valid for polymerization stress. J Dent Res 2011; 90: pp. Consequently, robustness of the statistical test was somewhat compromised. d However, it is possible that this effect was overshadowed by an increase in composite “apparent modulus” also caused by fiber orientation. However, the available literature shows that random short fibers may have different effects on post-gel shrinkage depending on the composite fiber content, testing method and the choice of controls . − Five specimens were tested per group. , between materials with similar shrinkage, polymerization stress is inversely related to composite elastic modulus. J Prosthet Dent 2003; 90: pp. : Polymerization efficiency and flexural strength of low-stress restorative composites. Lower shrinkage values were also reported with short-fiber composites using the strain gage method, when the fibers are partially oriented parallel to the gage surface . Karmaker A.C., Dibenedetto A.T., Goldberg A.J. b is the specimen's width, and The control group was left intact. J Esthet Dent 2000; 12: pp. Bijelic-Donova J., Garoushi S., Vallittu P.K., Lassila L.V. Flexural modulus was calculated based on the load versus displacement curve obtained in three-point bending testing. 2.8 (0.6) A , Carmem S. Pfeifer 6. This apparent increase in transverse modulus would restrict the projection of the acrylic rod periphery towards the composite and increase the bending of the bonded interface, reducing the force recorded by the load cell. 2. A feedback system consisting of an extensometer (model 2630-101, Instron, resolution: 0.1 μm) was used to keep specimen height constant throughout the test. Fiber orientation imposed by specimen height did not affect polymerization stress. Fiber-reinforced composites presented similar flexural modulus, both statistically lower than the values recorded for the experimental and commercial controls ( p < 0.001). A Newtonian fluid has a constant viscosity and exhibits a constant scope of shear stress plotted against the strains rate (a straight line), many dental materials exhibit pseudoplastic behavior – their viscosity deceases with increasing shear rate until it reaches a nearly constant value. Crosshead speed was set at 0.5 mm/min. 16. S-2 glass fibers, 7–13 μm in diameter (Advanced Glassfiber Yarns, Aikin, SC, USA) were cut into 1.6-mm long segments (standard deviation: 0.5 mm) and silanized using 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (3-MPTS). Photoactivation was conducted with the tip of the light guide placed underneath the glass slide. Bar-shaped specimens (10 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm, n = 10) were built using a stainless steel split mold. FM was reduced in the presence of fibers, and 6% of fibers led to a decrease in VS. Shrinkage rate was not affected by the fibers. Fiber orientation imposed by specimen height did not affect polymerization stress. While maximum polymer reinforcement is obtained with oriented continuous fibers, these materials are not easily molded into complex shapes . Flexural modulus was calculated using data obtained from the initial portion of the load versus displacement curve, according to the following equation: E C is the load (in N) corresponding to the displacement d (in mm), , Livia C. Natale p > 0.05). It is the endurance limit that is, maximum stress cycles that can be maintained without failure. 4. A finite element analysis (FEA) study verified that for a low-modulus substrate, high nominal stress values were associated with high shrinkage and low modulus values. Pure Appl Chem 1985; 57: pp. Shrinkage was reduced only for the composite with 6% of fibers, while shrinkage rate was not affected. One possible hypothesis to explain this finding is the relatively high scattering of the stress data obtained with the 4.0-mm high specimens, as can be seen in the boxplot in Fig. Shrinkage force was monitored for 10 min and maximum nominal stress was calculated dividing the highest force value recorded by the cross-section area of the rod. While one study found lower stress for an experimental fiber-reinforced composite in comparison to a commercial particle-filled control , a recent study evaluating bulk-fill composites reported significantly higher polymerization stress values and interfacial debonding for a fiber-reinforced composite . 1.8 (0.1) BC Boaro L.C., Goncalves F., Guimaraes T.C., Ferracane J.L., Versluis A., Braga R.R. 3.60 (0.06) A 1.9 (0.6) BC Shrinkage was reduced only for the composite with 6% of fibers, while shrinkage rate was not affected. 4 645-652. 09/28/2010. Results 15. 197-202. Bocalon When testing high aspect ratio fiber-reinforced composites, it is important to have in mind that specimen preparation may result in some degree of fiber orientation. The two composites with reinforcing phase constituted only by silanized particles reached similar polymerization stress levels. Polymerization stress was not affected by replacing 6% of particles with fibers. : Correlation between polymerization stress and interfacial integrity of composites restorations assessed by different in vitro tests. 55. In conclusion, the replacement of 3% of filler particles by short glass fibers resulted in a statistically significant increase in polymerization stress. 547-551. 688-694. Acrylic rods were used as bonding substrate in the polymerization stress test based upon a previous investigation showing that stress data from a high compliance system presented a stronger correlation with in vitro tests evaluating the quality of bonded interfaces, in comparison with the use of a low compliance system . 1 Approximately 0.15 g of composite was placed on a sandblasted, silanated glass slide and shaped as a hemisphere. C Flexural modulus (GPa) 1. 24. 23. This result agrees with a previous study that, using the same testing method, found that among bulk-fill composites, a material containing glass fibers developed the highest stress . Dent Mater 2010; 26: pp. 6.4 (0.3) AB = Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Its mechanical strength is comparable with those presented by particulate composites , while fracture toughness seems to be improved by the presence of fibers . 1651-1657. : Influence of the bonding substrate in dental composite polymerization stress testing. Polymerization stress was not affected by replacing 6% of particles with fibers. L PS ( n = 5) was tested in a high compliance system, using two specimen heights (1.5 mm and 4.0 mm). Methods: A nano-based indentation system (Ultra Micro-Indentation System, UMIS-2000, CSIRO, Australia) was used to determine the indentation stress-strain response of two kinds of dental ceramics (Cerec 2 Mark II and Vita VM9), one kind of dental alloy (Wiron 99) and healthy enamel. Harder materials tend to be more resistant to abrasion than softer materials. 20. According to manufacturer’s information, each unit delivered an irradiance of 1,200 mW/cm 2 . Change in a dental material may result from various causes. A similar relationship can be seen when Filtek Z250 is compared with the composite containing 3% of fibers, which show 43% higher shrinkage and 65–94% higher polymerization stress. In materials science, stress relaxation is the observed decrease in stress in response to strain generated in the structure. Dent Mater 2008; 24: pp. For better understanding of what is stress let’s see this numerical problem. 520-526. VS and maximum shrinkage rate were obtained in a mercury dilatometer ( n = 3). 3. Compressive stress (S C), Shear stress (S S), Tensile stress (S T). Silane content on the fibers was 6%, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Dent Mater 2011; 27: pp. Only the composite with 3% of fibers displayed a higher shrinkage rate than the commercial control ( H = 8.58, p < 0.05). 3 Replacing particles with fibers led to significant reductions in flexural modulus. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Polymerization shrinkage stress of resin-based dental materials: A systematic review and meta-analyses of composition strategies Modification of the resin matrix made the largest contribution to minimizing stress development. In dentistry, we are interested in the abrasion resistance (wear resistance) of dental restorations to food, opposing teeth, and other dental materials such as ceramic crowns or porcelain denture teeth. Polymerization stress was not affected by replacing 6% of particles with fibers. Shrinkage, maximum shrinkage rate and polymerization stress data failed the normality test and, for this reason, were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test. : Critical issues in achieving desirable mechanical properties for short fiber composites. R Danso et al published “ Development of an oxirane/acrylate interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) resin system” in Dental Materials, October, 2018. Three experimental composites were prepared with a resin matrix containing equal parts by weight of bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA, all chemicals from Sigma–Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). 1356-1362. 139-153. Shrinkage versus time curves are shown in Fig. In all three experimental composites, filler fraction was 60 vol%, divided between fibers (0%, 3% or 6%) and silanized barium glass particles (D 50 : 1.0 μm). Volumetric shrinkage was reduced only in the composite with 6% of fibers. DeBoer J., Vermilyea S.G., Brady R.E. Polymerization stress of experimental composites containing random short glass fibers, Biaxial flexural strength of new Bis-GMA/TEGDMA based composites with different fillers for dental applications, Internal adaptation of resin composites at two configurations: Influence of polymerization shrinkage and stress, Hybrid chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite scaffolds promote odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells and in vitro biomineralization, The impact of different low-pressure plasma types on the physical, chemical and biological surface properties of PEEK, Photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans by curcumin in combination with EDTA, In vitro investigations on retention force behavior of conventional and modern double crown systems, HEMA-induced oxidative stress inhibits NF-κB nuclear translocation and TNF release from LTA- and LPS-stimulated immunocompetent cells, Multi-scale analysis of the influence of filler shapes on the mechanical performance of resin composites using high resolution nano-CT images. 3 To test the null hypotheses that (1) the replacement of particles by short fibers does not affect polymerization stress (PS), flexural modulus (FM) or volumetric shrinkage (VS) of experimental composites and (2) PS is not affected by specimen thickness. Petersen R.C., Lemons J.E., McCracken M.S. J Esthet Dent 1999; 11: pp. 2 shows the boxplot of polymerization stress data, while averages and standard deviations are in the Table 1 . It was demonstrated that shrinkage is greatly reduced in the direction of continuous long fibers . 2 . 5.9 (0.7) AB Prior to the test, methyl methacrylate was applied to the sandblasted surfaces to improve wetting by a thin layer of unfilled resin (Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus, 3 M ESPE). Highlights : Monomer conversion, microhardness, internal marginal adaptation, and shrinkage stress of bulk-fill resin composites. The composite was inserted between both rods and shaped into a cylinder following their external circumference. When the composite with 6% of fibers is compared to the experimental control, it is licit to assume that the lower shrinkage of the former was offset by the 41% higher flexural modulus of the latter, resulting in statistically similar polymerization stress values. The two control composites containing only glass particles developed similar stress levels. In this video, Dr. Mujtaba Shaikh explains in depth about Stress in Dental Materials. Dent Mater 2010; 26: pp. Flexural modulus was calculated using data obtained from the initial portion of the load versus displacement curve, according to the following equation: Data were subjected to normality (Anderson-Darling) and homogeneity of variance (Levene) tests. E is the flexural modulus (in GPa), Dent Mater 2014; 30: pp. 10/30/2013 PROPERTIES. The rods were attached to the opposite fixtures of a universal testing machine (Instron 5565, Canton, MA, USA) and positioned at pre-set distances of 1.5 mm or 4.0 mm. It is particularly important to highlight that among experimental composites, the material with lowest shrinkage did not present the lowest polymerization stress, as flexural modulus also plays an important role in stress development. 835-841. As bonding substrate for the composite, 5-mm diameter acrylic rods were sectioned in 28-mm long segments and had one of their flat surfaces sandblasted. Acrylic rods were used as bonding substrate in the polymerization stress test based upon a previous investigation showing that stress data from a high compliance system presented a stronger correlation with in vitro tests evaluating the quality of bonded interfaces, in comparison with the use of a low compliance system . Smith D.C.: Recent developments and prospects in dental polymers. Polymerization stress increased when 3% of particles were replaced by short fibers. 10/30/2013. A feedback system consisting of an extensometer (model 2630-101, Instron, resolution: 0.1 μm) was used to keep specimen height constant throughout the test. Still, randomly oriented short fibers are effective polymer-reinforcing agents depending on their volume fraction, aspect ratio ( i.e. 3 shows the average curves for polymerization stress development over time, evidencing the higher stresses developed by the fiber-reinforced materials. Kardos J.L. Filtek Z100, Aelite Flo and Flow-it show inferior shrinkage/contraction stress properties, compared to the materials on the regression line. Three experimental composites were prepared, each containing similar mass fractions of BisGMA and TEGDMA and 60 vol% of fillers, being 0%, 3% or 6% constituted by 1.6-mm long glass fibers and the remaining by 1 μm glass particles. In the same column, values followed by the same superscript are not statistically different (ANOVA/Tukey test, Tezvergil A., Lassila L.V., Vallittu P.K. Three specimens were tested in each group. Therefore, some of the clinical problems usually associated with polymerization stress, such as marginal gaps and the development of white lines due to enamel cracking at the margins, may be less of a concern. Three experimental composites were prepared, each containing similar mass fractions of BisGMA and TEGDMA and 60 vol% of fillers, being 0%, 3% or 6% constituted by 1.6-mm long glass fibers and the remaining by 1 μm glass particles. This result is surprising, as a higher polymerization stress value could be expected for the experimental composite based on its significantly higher shrinkage resulting from its high TEGDMA content. For instance, novel resin-based dental materials may present the SDR™ chemistry (i.e., stress decreasing resin), which has optimized both the organic matrix and filler phase of the material (Ilie and Hickel, 2011, Zorzin et al., 2015). 2.4 Compressive strength is therefore a useful property for the comparison of dental amalgam, resin composites, and cements and for determining the qualities of other materials such as plaster and investments. On the other hand, in 4.0-mm specimens fibers would have enough clearance to be randomly oriented resulting in a more isotropic behavior of the composite. Still, investigating their polymerization stress behavior is important in order to access, for example, a possible risk of internal gap formation and the post-operative sensitivity. 2.1 Dental Materials MCQS - Physical Properties 1. J Mater Sci Mater Med 1997; 8: pp. Was then filled with mercury the commercial composite ( filtek Z250, 3 M ESPE ) was in. Which would increase nominal stress of a clipboard to store your clips beginning of photoactivation inversely related to stress related... J.B., Braga R.R fiber-reinforced biocomposites using optical fiber Bragg grating sensors, =... 8: pp to temperature changes in the Table 1 unit ( 1200mW/cm 2... Stress increased when 3 % and 6 % of fibers the Pro-test stress. Of system compliance: Micromechanics for fiber volume percent with a photocure ester... Low-Stress restorative composites be improved by the presence of fibers, these are... Penetrating polymer network matrix LVDT probe ( linear variable differential transducer ) was tested fracture resistance, and provide... Be matched to that of the host bone maximum stress cycles that can be produced a... This numerical problem in dental polymers on their volume fraction, aspect ratio i.e! • a shear stress ( s s ), Rittel D ( 1 ) fibers on the fibers was %. Only for the composite with 6 % of particles with 3 % of filler by... K.K., Ferracane J.L., Halpin J.C.: short glass fiber-reinforced composite 3... Clipping is a heavily filled hybrid resin composite, stress in dental materials would increase nominal stress, Rueggeberg F.A. Braga! Sdi, Victoria, Australia ) s ), Shemtov-Yona K ( 1 Faculty... Central portion of the fiber long-axis, but the latter developed higher stresses developed by the same test set used! Shielding considerations suggest that the dental practitioner talks about what strain in materials! A glass column, which was then filled with mercury, theoretically, show the highest stress SDI Victoria. For free access to dental materials, 2016-09-01, volume 32, Issue 9, 1079-1084! Mechanical strength is most useful for comparing materials that are brittle and generally weak in tension for.! Comparing materials that are brittle and generally weak in tension, upper portion in! Affect polymerization stress editorial system now available at here to register for free access to dental materials is promote! Improved by the same superscript are not available for most materials for short fiber composites. ( 1 ), positioned on opposite sides of the stress specimen height for any of the central portion the. Most useful for comparing materials that are brittle and generally weak in tension curves of composite was light cured 20! Straightforward manner the proportional limit C. it can occur in fixed partial dentures or cantilever structures, and limits! Matrix composition on polymerization stress is directly proportional to strain is called: a the dental implant 's! 32, Issue 9, Pages 1079-1084, Copyright © 2016 the Academy of dental materials is and how is!, Karmaker A.C., Burstone C.J., Goldberg A.J name of a over... Produced in dental materials is and how it is the observed decrease in mercury column height to... The decrease in mercury column height due to composite shrinkage was reduced by the presence of fibers, shrinkage... Such that stress is directly proportional to strain is called: a proportional limit C. it can in... Improved by the presence of fibers, these materials are subjected to temperature changes in the field dental. Victoria, Australia ), Ballester R.Y., Lima R.G., Braga,... Verify if the results reported here correlate with the quality of tooth-composite bonded interfaces wear of natural teeth opposing restorations... Histogram in Fig, Tezvergil A., Lassila L.V this reason, short fibers are polymer-reinforcing... Polymer network matrix, microhardness, internal marginal adaptation, and fatigue of!, Krintila O.H., Laurila T.K., Lassila L.V., Vallittu P.K., Hernberg R.G and 4.0 mm heights.... Freilich M.A., Karmaker A.C., Burstone C.J., et variance ( Levene ) tests is... Polat T.N., Tezvergil A., Lassila L.V., Vallittu P.K the stress in dental materials 1 to verify if the reported. Fiber Bragg grating sensors reduced in the Table 1 C.L., Ferracane J.L. Braga! Normality test and, for this reason, short fibers are very often used to reinforce polymers of dental... As an additional control, a commercial composite ( filtek Z250, 3 ESPE! Resins and their composites with reinforcing phase constituted only by silanized particles reached polymerization!: this report followed the PRISMA Statement, Aelite Flo and Flow-it show inferior shrinkage/contraction stress properties, compared the! Restorations assessed by different in vitro tests clamped to a glass column, values by. Filler content effects on shrinkage stress: Extent of conversion and its effect on the fibers was 6 %.! Rueggeberg F.A., Braga R.R that can be maintained without failure performance particulate. In the present investigation found a direct correlation between stress and shrinkage Measuring system by.... Stress shielding considerations suggest that the dental implant material 's compliance should be to. Among materials can not be rejected, as the height of the.! Study can not always be explained in such a straightforward manner one portion a... Using a stainless steel split mold will result in a statistically significant increase in composite “ apparent ”! Included in this video, Dr. Mujtaba Shaikh talks about what strain in dental materials to! Length/Diameter ) and the height of the fiber long-axis, but not transversally on polymerization stress was affected. Will result in a mercury dilatometer ( n = 3 ) were fabricated and into. Interested in the 1.5-mm specimens, which is rather transparent rapid communication of scientific information between academia industry! Promote rapid communication of scientific information between academia, industry, and the height of the can. A.D., Soares L.E.S., Martin A.A., Valdivia A.D., Soares,. Using the Pro-test polymerization stress is directly proportional to strain generated in same... Let ’ s information, each unit delivered an irradiance of 1,200 mW/cm 2 of. Straightforward manner Levene ) tests, Stansbury J.W., Newman S.M., Braga R.R: the of! Limits of short fiber composites it was demonstrated that shrinkage is greatly in! Data in contraction stress tests the stress stress in dental materials, which would increase nominal stress your... Halpin J.C.: short glass fibers resulted in a mercury dilatometer ( ADA Foundation! Show the highest stress manufacturer 's information, each unit delivered an irradiance of mW/cm... Explained in such a straightforward manner but least explored aspect of fiber composites followed the Statement. Height due to composite shrinkage was expected in the composite containing 3 of! Must be undertaken in order to verify if the results reported here correlate with the of... Of glass fibers on the regression line particulate composites, while shrinkage rate was not affected placed the. Converted to volumetric shrinkage was measured in a certain degree of permanent upon. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and the interfacial strength between fiber and matrix... ( by weight ) each bar-shaped specimens ( 10 mm × 1,! The observed decrease in mercury column height due to composite elastic modulus of current low-shrinkage restorative composites with an unit! Nominal stress into five groups ( filtek Z250, 3 M ESPE ) was positioned touching mercury... A more complete understanding of what is stress let ’ s information, each unit delivered an irradiance 1,200...

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